Background reading

Alongside the books, reports and websites listed in Coping With Pregnancy Loss, the texts below are all resources I drew upon when writing the book. You may find them useful for yourself or your patients (if you are a therapist or healthcare worker).  Please note these papers cover issues that are sensitive and may be upsetting – including some of their titles.


Abboud, L., Liamputtong, P., 2005. When pregnancy fails: coping strategies, support networks and experiences with health care of ethnic women and their partners. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 23, 3–18.

Abboud, N.L., Liamputtong, P., 2008. Pregnancy Loss. Social Work in Healthcare 36, 37–62.

Adolfsson, A., 2011. Women’s well-being improves after missed miscarriage with more active support and application of Swanson’s Caring Theory. Psychology research and behavior management 4, 1–9.

Adolfsson, A., Bertero, C., Larsson, P.-G., 2006. Effect of a structured second visit to midwife on women with early miscarriage, a randomized study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 330–335.

Adolfsson, A., Larsson, P.-G., 2010. Applicability of general grief theory to Swedish women’s experience after early miscarriage, with factor analysis of Bonanno’s taxonomy, using the Perinatal Grief Scale. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 115, 201–209.

Adolfsson, A., Larsson, P.G., Wijma, B., Bertero, C., 2004. Guilt and emptiness:women’s experiences of miscarriage. Health Care for Women International 25, 543–560.

Adolfsson, A., Tullander-Tjörnstrand, K., Larsson, P.-G., 2011. Different management for women with missed miscarriage will change the need for emergency treatment at the gynecological outpatient clinic. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 921–923.

Ahmed, S., Anastasi, E., Laski, L., 2016. Double burden of tragedy: stillbirth and obstetric fistula. The Lancet Global Health 4, e80–e82.

Andersson Ida-Maria, Nilsson Sandra, Adolfsson Annsofie, 2011. How women who have experienced one or more miscarriages manage their feelings and emotions when they become pregnant again – a qualitative interview study. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 26, 262–270.

Andersson, I.-M., Christensson, K., Gemzell-Danielsson, K., 2015. Experiences, Feelings and Thoughts of Women Undergoing Second Trimester Medical Termination of Pregnancy. PLOS ONE 9, e115957.

Anonymous., 2016. “No small talk please, my baby’s just died.” BMJ 352.

Arshad, M., Horsfall, A., Yasin, R., 2004. Pregnancy loss-Islamic perspective. British Journal of Midwifery 12, 481–484.

Atienza-Carrasco, J., Linares-Abad, M., Padilla-Ruiz, M., Morales-Gil, I.M., 2018. Breaking bad news to antenatal patients with strategies to lessen the pain: a qualitative study. Reproductive Health 15, 1–11.

Atlas, J., C., 2017. Telling a Story of Stillbirth: Accepting the Limits of Narrative. Survive & Thrive: A Journal for Medical Humanities and Narrative as Medicine 3.

Barr, P., 2010. Guilt- and shame-proneness and the grief of perinatal bereavement. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 77, 493–510.

Bergner, A., Beyer, R., Klapp, B.F., Rauchfuss, M., 2008. Pregnancy after early pregnancy loss: A prospective study of anxiety, depressive symptomatology and coping. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 29, 105–113.

Betts, D., Dahlen, H.G., Smith, C.A., 2014. A search for hope and understanding: An analysis of threatened miscarriage internet forums. Midwifery 30, 650–656.

Beutel, M., Deckardt, R., von Rad, M., Weiner, H., 1995. Grief and Depression After Miscarriage: Their Separation, Antecedents, and Course. Psychosomatic Medicine 57.

Beutel, M., Willner, H., Deckardt, R., Von Rad, M., Weiner, H., 1996. Similarities and differences in couples’ grief reactions following a miscarriage: Results from a longitudinal study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 40, 245–253.

Black, R.B., 1991. Women’s voices after pregnancy loss: couples’ patterns of communication and support. Social Work in Healthcare 16, 19–36.

Blencowe, H., Cousens, S., Jassir, F.B., Say, L., Chou, D., Mathers, C., Hogan, D., Shiekh, S., Qureshi, Z.U., You, D., Lawn, J.E., 2016. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2015, with trends from 2000: a systematic analysis. The Lancet Global Health 4, e98–e108.

Bonnette, S., Broom, A., 2011. On grief, fathering and the male role in men’s accounts of stillbirth. Journal of Sociology 48, 248–265.

Boyle, F.M., Mutch, A.J., Barber, E.A., Carroll, C., Dean, J.H., 2015. Supporting parents following pregnancy loss: a cross-sectional study of telephone peer supporters. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 15, 291.

Boynton, P.M. 2015. Miscarriage: You don’t have to be strong for me. The Lancet 358, 222-223.

Breeze, A.C.G., Statham, H., Hackett, G.A., Jessop, F.A., Lees, C.C., 2012. Perinatal Postmortems: What Is Important to Parents and How Do They Decide? Birth 39, 57–64.

Breeze, A.C.G., Statham, H., Hackett, G.A., Jessop, F.A., Lees, C.C., 2011. Attitudes to perinatal postmortem: parental views about research participation. J Med Ethics 37, 364.

Brier, N., 2004. Anxiety After Miscarriage: A Review of the Empirical Literature and Implications for Clinical Practice. Birth 31, 138–142.

Brier, N., n.d. Grief Following Miscarriage: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Journal of Women’s Health 17, 451–464.

Broen, A.N., Moum, T., Bødtker, A.S., Ekeberg, Ø., 2005. The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study. BMC Medicine 3, 18.

Budd, J., Stacey, T., Martin, B., Roberts, D., Heazell, A.E.P., 2018. Women’s experiences of being invited to participate in a case-control study of stillbirth – findings from the Midlands and North of England Stillbirth Study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 18, 317.

Cacciatore, J., 2007. Effects of Support Groups on Post Traumatic Stress Responses in Women Experiencing Stillbirth. Omega (Westport) 55, 71–90.

Caelli Kate, Downie Jill, Letendre Angeline, 2002. Parents’ experiences of midwife-managed care following the loss of a baby in a previous pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing 39, 127–136.

Callister, L.C., 2006. Perinatal Loss: A Family Perspective. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing 20.

Cameron, J., Taylor, J., Greene, A., 2008. Representations of rituals and care in perinatal death in British midwifery textbooks 1937–2004. Midwifery 24, 335–343.

Campbell-Jackson, L., Bezance, J., Horsch, A., 2014. “A renewed sense of purpose”: Mothers’ and fathers’ experience of having a child following a recent stillbirth. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 14, 423.

Canadian Paediatric Society, 2001. Guidelines for health care professionals supporting families experiencing a perinatal loss. Paediatrics & Child Health 6, 469–477.

Catlin, A., 2018. Interdisciplinary Guidelines for Care of Women Presenting to the Emergency Department With Pregnancy Loss. MCN: The  American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing 43.

Catlin, A., 2017. Creation of interdisciplinary guidelines for care of women presenting to the emergency department with pregnancy loss. Journal Of Perinatology 37, 757.

Cecil, R., 1994a. Miscarriage: Women’s views of care. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 12, 21–29.

Cecil, R., 1994b. “I wouldn’t have minded a wee one running about”: Miscarriage and the family. Social Science & Medicine 38, 1415–1422.

Child Bereavement UK, 2018. Explaining miscarriage, stillbirth or the death of a newborn baby to young children.

Conway Kim, Russell Graeme, 2011. Couples’ grief and experience of support in the aftermath of miscarriage. British Journal of Medical Psychology 73, 531–545.

Corbet-Owen, C., 2003. Women’s Perceptions of Partner Support in the Context of Pregnancy Loss(es). South African Journal of Psychology 33, 19–27.

Cordle, C.J., Prettyman, R.J., 1994. A 2-year follow-up of women who have experienced early miscarriage. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 12, 37–43.

Craven, C., Peel, E., 2017. Queering reproductive loss: Exploring grief and memorialization. in: Interrogating Pregnancy Loss: Feminist Writings on Abortion, Miscarriage, and Stillbirth. Demeter Press, Ontario. 225–245.

Cumming GP, Klein S, Bolsover D, Lee AJ, Alexander DA, Maclean M, Jurgens JD, 2007. The emotional burden of miscarriage for women and their partners: trajectories of anxiety and depression over 13 months. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 114, 1138–1145.

Daly, S.F., Harte, L., O’beirne, E., McGee, H., Turner, M.J., 1996. Does miscarriage affect the father? Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 16, 260–261.

Darney, B.G., Weaver, M.R., Stevens, N., Kimball, J., Prager, S.W., 2013a. The Family Medicine Residency Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management: Impact on Practice in Washington State. Family medicine 45, 102–108.

Darney, B.G., Weaver, M.R., VanDerhei, D., Stevens, N.G., Prager, S.W., 2013b. “One of those areas that people avoid” a qualitative study of implementation in miscarriage management. BMC Health Services Research 13, 123–123.

Dellicour, S., Desai, M., Mason, L., Odidi, B., Aol, G., Phillips-Howard, P.A., Laserson, K.F., ter Kuile, F.O., 2013. Exploring Risk Perception and Attitudes to Miscarriage and Congenital Anomaly in Rural Western Kenya. PLoS ONE 8, e80551.

Druguet, M., Nuño, L., Rodó, C., Arévalo, S., Carreras Moratonas, E., Gómez-Benito, J., 2017. Influence of farewell rituals and psychological vulnerability on grief following perinatal loss in monochorionic twin pregnancy. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 1–3.

Due, C., Chiarolli, S., Riggs, D.W., 2017. The impact of pregnancy loss on men’s health and wellbeing: a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 17, 380.

ESHRE Early Pregnancy Guideline Development Group, 2017. Recurrent pregnancy loss: Guideline of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

Evans, J., 2016. ‘They are called Imperfect Men’: Male Infertility and Sexual Health in Early Modern England. Social History of Medicine 29, 311–332.

Evans, J., Read, S., 2014. “Before midnight she had miscarried”: Women, Men, and Miscarriage in Early Modern England. Journal of Family History 40, 3–23.

Evans, R., 2012. Emotional care for women who experience miscarriage. Nursing Standard 26, 35–41.

Fairchild, J.L., Arrington, M.I., 2012. Depictions of Husbands in Miscarriage Accounts. Illness, Crisis & Loss 20, 363–373.

Farren, J., Jalmbrant, M., Ameye, L., Joash, K., Mitchell-Jones, N., Tapp, S., Timmerman, D., Bourne, T., 2016. Post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression following miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Open 6.

Fetus and Newborn Committee, 2001. Guidelines for health care professionals supporting families experiencing a perinatal loss. Paediatrics & Child Health 6, 469–477.

Fetus and Newborn Committee, 1983. Support for parents experiencing perinatal loss. Canadian Medical Association Journal 129, 335–339.

Frost, M., Condon, J.T., 1996. The Psychological Sequelae of Miscarriage: A Critical Review of the Literature. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 30, 54–62.

Gardner, C., 2015. Medicine’s uncanny valley: the problem of standardising empathy. The Lancet 386, 1032–1033.

Garel, M., Blondel, B., Lelong, N., Bonenfant, S., Kaminski, M., 1994. Long-term consequences of miscarriage: the depressive disorders and the following pregnancy. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 12, 233–240.

Gavino, K., 2003. “A Horrible Place for a Miscarriage”: Nurses’ Experiences of Caring for Women in the Emergency Department. University of British Columbia.

Geller, P.A., Kerns, D., Klier, C.M., 2004. Anxiety following miscarriage and the subsequent pregnancy. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 56, 35–45.

Gold, K.J., Sen, A., Hayward, R.A., 2010. Marriage and Cohabitation Outcomes After Pregnancy Loss. Pediatrics 125, e1202.

Gong, X., Hao, J., Tao, F., Zhang, J., Wang, H., Xu, R., 2013. Pregnancy loss and anxiety and depression during subsequent pregnancies: data from the C-ABC study. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 166, 30–36.

Graham, C.A., Mercer, C.H., Tanton, C., Jones, K.G., Johnson, A.M., Wellings, K., Mitchell, K.R., 2017. What factors are associated with reporting lacking interest in sex and how do these vary by gender? Findings from the third British national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. BMJ Open 7.

Gravensteen, I.K., Jacobsen, E.-M., Sandset, P.M., Helgadottir, L.B., Rådestad, I., Sandvik, L., Ekeberg, Ø., 2018. Anxiety, depression and relationship satisfaction in the pregnancy following stillbirth and after the birth of a live-born baby: a prospective study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 18, 41.

Habayeb, O.M.H., Konje, J.C., 2004. The one-stop recurrent miscarriage clinic: an evaluation of its effectiveness and outcome. Human Reproduction 19, 2952–2958.

Hendson, L., Davies, D., Canadian Paediatric Society, Fetus and Newborn Committee, 2018. Supporting and communicating with families experiencing a perinatal loss.

Hennegan, J.M., Henderson, J., Redshaw, M., 2018. Is partners’ mental health and well-being affected by holding the baby after stillbirth? Mothers’ accounts from a national survey. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 36, 120–131.

Herbitter, C., Bennett, A., Schubert, F.D., Bennett, I.M., Gold, M., 2013. Management of Early Pregnancy Failure and Induced Abortion by Family Medicine Educators. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 26, 751–758.

Hinton, L., Locock, L., Knight, M., 2014. Partner Experiences of “Near-Miss” Events in Pregnancy and Childbirth in the UK: A Qualitative Study. PLoS ONE 9, e91735.

Hollins Martin, C.J., Forrest, E., Wylie, L., Martin, C.R., 2013. The Understanding Bereavement Evaluation Tool (UBET) for midwives: Factor structure and clinical research applications. Nurse Education Today 33, 1153–1159.

Horstman, H.K., Holman, A., 2018. Communicated Sense-making After Miscarriage: A Dyadic Analysis of Spousal Communicated Perspective-Taking, Well-being, and Parenting Role Salience. Health Communication 33, 1317–1326.

Huffman, C.S., Schwartz, T.A., Swanson, K.M., 2015. Couples and Miscarriage: The Influence of Gender and Reproductive Factors on the Impact of Miscarriage. Women’s Health Issues 25, 570–578.

Huffman, C.S., Swanson, K., Lynn, M.R., 2014. Measuring the Meaning of Miscarriage: Revision of the Impact of Miscarriage Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement 22, 29–45.

Hughes, C.B., Page-lieberman, J., 1989. Fathers experiencing a perinatal loss. Death Studies 13, 537–556.

Hughes, K., Goodall, U., 2013. Perinatal bereavement care: Are we meeting families’ needs? British Journal of Midwifery, 21, 248–253.

Hutti, M.H., 1992. Parents’ perceptions of the miscarriage experience. Death Studies 16, 401–415.

Ilse, S., Coyle, A., 2016. What to say and do right when things go terribly wrong in obstetrics. Contemporary Ob/Gyn 1–4.

Inati Violet, Matic Mara, Phillips Christine, Maconachie Nathalie, Vanderhook Fiona, Kent Alison L., 2017. A survey of the experiences of families with bereavement support services following a perinatal loss. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 58, 54–63.

Isle, S., Burns, L., n.d. Miscarriage: A Shattered Dream. Wintergreen Press, Minneapolis.

Iyoke, C., Ugwu, O., Ezugwu, F., Onah, H., Agbata, A., Ajah, L., 2014. Current approaches for assessment and treatment of women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy in Nigeria: A case for dedicated early pregnancy services. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 17, 419–424.

  1. Toedter, J.N.L., Hettie J.E.M. Janssen, Lori, 2001. International comparison of studies using the perinatal grief scale: a decade of research on pregnancy loss. Death Studies 25, 205–228.

Jansson, C., Adolfsson, A., 2010. A Swedish study of midwives’ and nurses’ experiences when women are diagnosed with a missed miscarriage during a routine ultrasound scan. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare 1, 67–72.

Jauniaux, E., Farquharson, R.G., Christiansen, O.B., Exalto, N., On behalf of ESHRE Special Interest Group for Early Pregnancy (SIGEP)., 2006. Evidence-based guidelines for the investigation and medical treatment of recurrent miscarriage. Human Reproduction 21, 2216–2222.

Johnson, M., Baker, S., 2004. Implications of coping repertoire as predictors of men’s stress, anxiety and depression following pregnancy, childbirth and miscarriage: a longitudinal study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 25, 87–98.

Johnson Martin P., Puddifoot John E., 2011. Miscarriage: Is vividness of visual imagery a factor in the grief reaction of the partner? British Journal of Health Psychology 3, 137–146.

Johnson, M.P., Puddifoot, J.E., 1996. The grief response in the partners of women who miscarry. British Journal of Medical Psychology 69, 313–327.

Jurkovic, D., Overton, C., Bender-Atik, R., 2013. Diagnosis and management of first trimester miscarriage. BMJ 346.

Kangatharan, C., Labram, S., Bhattacharya, S., 2017. Interpregnancy interval following miscarriage and adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Human Reproduction Update 23, 221–231.

Kavanaugh, K., Trier, D., Korzec, M., 2004. Social Support Following Perinatal Loss. Journal of family nursing 10, 70–92.

Kempson, D., Murdock, V., 2010. Memory Keepers: A Narrative Study on Siblings Never Known. Death Studies 34, 738–756.

Kersting, A., Dölemeyer, R., Steinig, J., Walter, F., Kroker, K., Baust, K., Wagner, B., 2013. Brief Internet-Based Intervention Reduces Posttraumatic Stress and Prolonged Grief in Parents after the Loss of a Child during Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 82, 372–381.

Kersting, A., Wagner, B., 2012. Complicated grief after perinatal loss. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 14, 187–194.

Khan, R.A., Drudy, L., Sheehan, J., Harrison, R.F., Geary, M., 2004. Early Pregnancy Loss: How Do Men Feel? The Irish Medical Journal 97, 217–218.

Klein, S., Cumming, G., Lee, A., Alexander, D., Bolsover, D., 2012. Evaluating the effectiveness of a web-based intervention to promote mental wellbeing in women and partners following miscarriage, using a modified patient preference trial design: an external pilot. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 119, 762–767.

Kohn, T.P., Kohn, J.R., Darilek, S., Ramasamy, R., Lipshultz, L., 2016. Genetic counseling for men with recurrent pregnancy loss or recurrent implantation failure due to abnormal sperm chromosomal aneuploidy. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 33, 571–576.

Kong, G., Chung, T., Lok, I., 2014. The impact of supportive counselling on women’s psychological wellbeing after miscarriage – a randomised controlled trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 121, 1253–1262.

Kong GWS, Chung TKH, Lai BPY, Lok IH, 2010. Gender comparison of psychological reaction after miscarriage—a 1-year longitudinal study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 117, 1211–1219.

Kong, G.W.S., Lok, I.H., Lam, P.M., Yip, A.S.K., Chung, T.K.H, , 2010. Conflicting perceptions between health care professionals and patients on the psychological morbidity following miscarriage. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 50, 562–567.

Koopmans, L., Wilson, T., Cacciatore, J., Flenady, V., 2013. Support for mothers, fathers and families after perinatal death. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Kuebelbeck, A., Davis, D., 2011. A Gift of Time, Continuing Your Pregnancy When Your Baby’s Life is Expected to Be Brief. John Hopkins, Baltimore.

Layne, L.L., 2006. Pregnancy and infant loss support: A new, feminist, American, patient movement? Social Science & Medicine 62, 602–613.

Lee, C., 2012. ‘She was a person, she was here’: The experience of late pregnancy loss in Australia. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 30, 62–76.

Lee, C., Slade, P., 1996. Miscarriage as a traumatic event: A review of the literature and new implications for intervention. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 40, 235–244.

Leister, J., V., 2016. Breaking the Silence: the story of one in four. University of Nebraska, College of Mass Communications.

Levison, J., Nanthuru, D., Chiudzu, G., Kazembe, P.N., Phiri, H., Ramin, S.M., Aagaard, K.M., 2014. Qualitative assessment of attitudes and knowledge on preterm birth in Malawi and within country framework of care. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 14, 123–123.

Lotto, R., Smith, L.K., Armstrong, N., 2018. Diagnosis of a severe congenital anomaly: A qualitative analysis of parental decision making and the implications for healthcare encounters. Health Expectations : An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy 21, 678–684.

Lou, S., Frumer, M., Schlütter, M.M., Petersen, O.B., Vogel, I., Nielsen, C.P., 2017. Experiences and expectations in the first trimester of pregnancy: a qualitative study. Health Expectations : An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy 20, 1320–1329.

MacWilliams, K., Hughes, J., Aston, M., Field, S., Moffatt, F.W., 2016. Understanding the Experience of Miscarriage in the Emergency Department. Journal of Emergency Nursing 42, 504–512.

Magee, P.L., Macleod, A.K., Tata, P., Regan, L., 2003. Psychological distress in recurrent miscarriage: The role of prospective thinking and role and goal investment. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 21, 35–47.

Mander, R., Marshall, R.K., 2003. An historical analysis of the role of paintings and photographs in comforting bereaved parents. Midwifery 19, 230–242.

McClure, E.M., Goldenberg, R.L., 2016. Improved data informs efforts to end preventable stillbirths. The Lancet Global Health 4, e70–e71.

McCreight Bernadette Susan, 2004. A grief ignored: narratives of pregnancy loss from a male perspective. Sociology of Health & Illness 26, 326–350.

McDonald, S., Slade, P., Spiby, H., Iles, J., 2011. Post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress and mother-child relationships following childbirth and at 2 years postpartum. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 32, 141–146.

McGreal, D., Evans, B.J., Burrows, G.D., 1998. Gender differences in coping following loss of a child through miscarriage or stillbirth: a pilot study. Stress Medicine 13, 159–165.

McLean, A., Flynn, C., 2012. ‘It’s not just a pap-smear’: Women speak of their experiences of hospital treatment after miscarriage. Qualitative Social Work 12, 782–798.

Meaney, S., Corcoran, P., Spillane, N., O’Donoghue, K., 2017. Experience of miscarriage: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. BMJ Open 7, e011382.

Meaney Sarah, Everard Claire M., Gallagher Stephen, O’Donoghue Keelin, 2016. Parents’ concerns about future pregnancy after stillbirth: a qualitative study. Health Expectations 20, 555–562.

Mills, T., Ricklesford, C., Cooke, A., Heazell, A., Whitworth, M., Lavender, T., 2014. Parents’ experiences and expectations of care in pregnancy after stillbirth or neonatal death: a metasynthesis. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 121, 943–950.

Montigny Francine, Beaudet Line, Dumas Louise, 2006. A Baby Has Died: The Impact of Perinatal Loss on Family Social Networks. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing 28, 151–156.

Moohan, J., Ashe, R.G., Cecil, R., 1994. The management of miscarriage: Results from a survey at one hospital. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 12, 17–19.

Moore, T., Parrish, H., Black, B.P., 2011. Interconception Care for Couples After Perinatal Loss:  A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing 25.

Mullan, Z., 2016. Stillbirths: still neglected? The Lancet Global Health 4, e69.

Murphy  Fiona A., 2002. The experience of early miscarriage from a male perspective. Journal of Clinical Nursing 7, 325–332.

Murphy, F., Merrell, J., 2009. Negotiating the transition: caring for women through the experience of early miscarriage. Journal of Clinical Nursing 18, 1583–1591.

Murphy, F., Philpin, S., 2010. Early miscarriage as ‘matter out of place’: An ethnographic study of nursing practice in a hospital gynaecological unit. International Journal of Nursing Studies 47, 534–541.

Murphy, F.A., Lipp, A., Powles, D.L., 2012. Follow-up for improving psychological well being for women after a miscarriage. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 3, CD008679–CD008679.

Musallam, R., Salem, N., Al Halol, R., Al Deeb, H., Bottcher, B., AlHamaida, H., 2018. Management of pregnancy loss in the first trimester: a retrospective audit. The Lancet 391, S34.

Musters, A.M., Koot, Y.E.M., van den Boogaard, N.M., Kaaijk, E., Macklon, N.S., van der Veen, F., Nieuwkerk, P.T., Goddijn, M., 2013. Supportive care for women with recurrent miscarriage: a survey to quantify women’s preferences. Human Reproduction 28, 398–405.

Nanda, K., Lopez, L., Grimes, D., Peloggia, A., Nanda, G., 2012. Expectant care versus surgical treatment for miscarriage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Navidian, A., Saravani, Z., Shakiba, M., 2017. Impact of Psychological Grief Counseling on the Severity of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Mothers after Stillbirths. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 38, 650–654.

NCT, 2017. Supporting parents through stillbirth and other unexpected outcomes. National Childbirth Trust.

Ney, P.G., Fung, T., Wickett, A.R., Beaman-Dodd, C., 1994. The effects of pregnancy loss on women’s health. Social Science & Medicine 38, 1193–1200.

NHS London Clinical Networks, 2017. Gathering feedback from families following the death of their baby: A resource to support professionals in maternity care. London.

NICE, 2012. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management. Clinical Guideline [CG154].

NIHR, 2017. Better Beginnings: Improving Health for Pregnancy.

Nikčević, A.V., 2003. Development and evaluation of a miscarriage follow-up clinic. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 21, 207–217.

Nikcevic, A.V., Kuczmierczyk, A.R., Tunkel, S.A., Nicolaides, K.H., 2000. Distress after miscarriage: Relation to the knowledge of the cause of pregnancy loss and coping style. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 18, 339–343.

Nuzum, D., Meaney, S., O’Donoghue, K., 2018. The impact of stillbirth on bereaved parents: A qualitative study. PLOS ONE 13, e0191635.

Nyberg, K., Lindberg, I., Öhrling, K., 2010. Midwives’ experience of encountering women with posttraumatic stress symptoms after childbirth. Sexual & reproductive healthcare : official journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives 1, 55—60.

Ockhuijsen Henrietta D. L., van den Hoogen Agnes, Boivin Jacky, Macklon Nicholas S., de Boer Fijgje, 2014. Pregnancy After Miscarriage: Balancing Between Loss of Control and Searching for Control. Research in Nursing & Health 37, 267–275.

O’Connell, O., Meaney, S., O’Donoghue, K., 2016. Caring for parents at the time of stillbirth: How can we do better? Women and Birth 29, 345–349.

O’Hare, T., Creed, F., 1995. Life events and miscarriage. The British Journal of Psychiatry 167, 799–805.

Paparella, G., 2016. The state of maternity services in England. Policy Briefing. Picker Institute Europe.

Paton, F., Wood, R., Bor, R., Nitsun, M., 1999. Grief in miscarriage patients and satisfaction with care in a London hospital. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 17, 301–315.

Peel, E., 2010. Pregnancy loss in lesbian and bisexual women: an online survey of experiences. Human Reproduction (Oxford, England) 25, 721–727.

Peel, E., Cain, R., 2012. “Silent” Miscarriage and Deafening Heteronormativity: A British Experiential and Critical Feminist Account, in: Understanding Reproductive Loss: Perspectives on Life, Death and Fertility. Ashgate, Aldershot. 79–92.

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